|Operation Bowler was the name of an attack on the Port of Venice in 1945. Extremely localised, it was seen as a grand success as it evaded the destruction of Venice’s historical buildings. The name ‘Operation Bowler’ referred to the threat imposed by the British air force that if any of Venice’s historical buildings got damaged in the bombings then the people responsible within the force would be ‘bowler-hatted’: asked to leave their position and once again become a civilian (going back to wearing a bowler hat). Allied propaganda promoted the bombings as a complete success although twenty-five people died as a result of the bombings, when a house collapsed in the centre of the neighbourhood of Santa Marta.
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