Diogenes Arno Geesink, Julia van der Krieke, Beata Labuhn
Working site/story: Rome/The silent resistance of priests and nuns
The last day before leaving Rome, the five REcall workshop teams have presented a summary of the work undergone during the week: all groups had interesting suggestions for their working sites and each of them also presented a good collection of documents and information gathered during the stay. This was due the incredible collaborative approach of Routes Agency who assisted POLIMI to arrange the workshop.
Following you find the link of each presentation:
Julia Heslop, Enrico Forestieri, Sophie Anderton
Isabel Lima, Lily Garnett, Toby Lloyd
Juan Carlos Mejía del Valle, Henar Riviere, Roberto Uribe Castro
Arno Geesink, Julia van der Krieke, Beata Labuhn
Tim Wouters, Filip van Dingenen, Annabelle Milon
01. REcall project
REcall seeks to formulate a new role of the architectural environment based on invigorated research on the cultural landscapes of WWI and WWII and strengthen the attention on the management, documentation and preservation of this heritage.The project regards heritage as a dynamic process, involving the declaration of our memory of past events and actions that have been refashioned for present day purposes such as identity, community, legalisation of power and authority. The project group see that any cultural landscape – i.e. architecture- is characterized by its dynamism, temporality and changing priorities in social perception.We stress
02. Rome Workshop
Minor geographies of day-to-day resistance
The Minor geographies of day-to-day resistance in Rome analyses various symbolic episodes of the Roman resistance during the period between September 8th 1943 and June 4th 1944. The Armistice between Italy and the Allied forces, known as the “Armistice of Cassibile”, was signed in secret in the city of the same name on September 7th 1943. On September 8th, at 18.30, the armistice is first announced by General Dwight Eisenhower via Radio Algiers, and later confirmed at 19:42 by Marshall Pietro Badoglio in a proclamation transmitted via EIAR. On September 9th, the Savoy Royal Family flees Rome and takes refuge in Apulia, an area already in the hands of the Allied troops. Rome is declared an “open city” due to the presence of Vatican City and the inestimable value of its historical monuments. In actual fact, the Nazis attack the city on the same day as the Armistice and occupy it. The occupation lasts 271 days, until the final retreat and the arrival of the Allies between June 4th and 5th 1944. Given its status of “open city” (or “neutral territory”), Rome has long figured in the popular imagination as a city liberated ahead of its time, and therefore an area without any major form of resistance. In fact, during this period the city undergoes a vicious Nazi-Fascist regime which sets up five different areas of detention and torture, as well as perpetrating several mass killings (the best known of which are those of Fosse Ardeatine and Forte Bravetta). However, what is less well-known about this time is the day-to-day brutality which both minor and more powerful military leaders and the Nazi-Fascists continued to impose on the unarmed civilian population – a total lack of freedom of expression, widespread hunger, continual confiscation of personal property and public humiliation. Many civilian groups, often appearing spontaneously from the grass roots and driven by basic survival needs, opposed this treatment, and constructed a complex network of day-to-day resistance. Many men, women and even children were tortured to death, or suffered unprecedented violence and deported to extermination camps or German factories as slave labourers. This civil resistance has not always received the same attention as that of the armed resistance groups active in the city. Moreover, these numerous and far from insignificant episodes are commemorated today mostly with just a plaque or by the name of a location, or the awarding of medals for civilian courage more than sixty years on.
The five focal points of our work raise five different issues related to the difficult memories of the horror of the Nazi-Fascist domination of Rome, and Italy as a whole; they also recount five different attempts at opposition to that regime, ending in both victory and defeat. The five stories have tragic endings, but they also pinpoint five locations; they are physical and material, but also moral and ethical; they are waiting to be transformed into places of memory, not monumentalised, passive memory, but rather as places of experience which can be renewed and revived for
Story01: The “Attacks” on the Ovens and the Women of Ponte dell’Industria
The winter of 1944 is characterised in Rome by the dramatic rationing of food. Each family, regardless of size, is permitted just 100 grams of bread per day. Many ovens cannot bake because the Nazi-Fascists commandeer the flour to make white bread for the Fascist hierarchy and the Nazi invaders. The women waiting at the bakeries are often denied even the 100g of bread, after hours of queuing. Between January and April 1944, some of the mothers begin spontaneous attacks on the ovens. After these first attacks, the women are supported by the partisans, as told by Carla Capponi. On the April 7th 1944, a large group of women and children, from the Ostiense e Portuense neighbourhood attack the Tesei oven, which secretly produces white bread for the Nazis. The PAI, Police of Italian Africa, call the SS and ten women are taken. They are led onto the parapet of the bridge, Ponte dell’Industria, in Ostiense and shot in cold blood. Father Efisio, parish priest of the nearby Church of St. Benedict, is called on to try and stop the massacre, but arrives to find them lying dead on the ground. His testimony, along with others, recounts how one of the women, the youngest, had been dragged from the river and had suffered a gang rape by the Nazi-Fascist troops, before being shot in the head. For many years following the end of the war, the names of the murdered women remain unknown; they were ordinary people who were driven to attack the oven out of hunger alone. Subsequently, thanks to the patient reconstruction of events carried out over years by journalist Cesare De Simone, the full names of all the victims were finally known. Immediately after the war, the Italian Parliament has a plaque erected to commemorate the massacre, at the request of the female parliamentarians of the Communist Party, but this is first vandalised and then destroyed permanently. Recently, at the location of the shooting, a marble memorial stone has been erected surrounded by a small flower bed, placed at the corner of the bridge. This small monument is hardly visible and shows only the names of the women killed, and a bas-relief of anonymous female faces. The massacre at the Ponte dell’Industria is a significant event that demonstrates the importance of everyday, unarmed resistance, carried out by people who attempted to oppose the daily abuses and violence of the Nazi-Fascists. The women involved in the oven attacks are an important symbol of resistance from below, often forgotten by the narratives of “wider” history, specifically because they represent clear evidence of a widespread dissent of civilian society in a time of dictatorship.
Story02: The Schoolboy Partisan: Ugo Forno.
Ugo Forno, known as “Ughetto” to his classmates, is 12 years old and lives in Via Nemorense 15, in the middle-class suburbs of Rome, with his father Enea Angelo, a clerk at the local Finance Office, and his mother Maria Vittoria Sorari . Having finished the second year of Middle School (Luigi Settembrini in via Sibenik) in May of 1944, he has just been accepted into the third year with full marks. On the morning of June 5th 1944, the day after the official arrival of the Allies in Rome, Ugo leaves the house, saying that he is going out to play. He goes to the central square of the “quartiere” and hears that the Americans are arriving to liberate that area of the city. But several groups of Nazis are still fighting. Around the river Aniene, some Partisan groups are preparing the ground for the arrival of the Allies, but Ugo learns that there is a team of Nazi engineers who are planning to blow up the railway bridge over the river which is the main route for the Allied entry into Rome. Ugo takes up position in a farmhouse in vicolo del Pino, not far from his own house, armed with weapons that he has found hidden in a nearby cave, and convinces some other older youths to attack the Germans. These are Antonio and Francesco Guidi, sons of the owner of the farmhouse and Luciano Curzon, Vittorio Seboni and Sandro Fornari, three of their labourers. This small group of improvised resistance fighters prevents the Germans from blowing up the bridge. As they retreat, however, they fire three mortar rounds at the young partisans resulting in a direct hit on the head of young Ugo. He dies instantly. Ugo Forno is the last to fall in the battle for the liberation of Rome. Documents unearthed by journalist Felice Cipriani, who, as part of the Ugo Forno Foundation, has worked for years to keep the memory of this episode alive, attest that Ugo had applied to join the resistance a few days before, but had been denied the opportunity because he was too young.
Story03: The Quadraro “Republic” and Operation Whale.
The Quadraro was (and still is) a working-class suburb of Rome. As with all the other similar suburbs, it was constructed by the Fascists to keep the peasant masses and the underclass outside the walls of the capital. It arose from slums built by the poor using scavenged materials. The Quadraro, however, soon takes on the appearance of a well-organised and well-constructed neighbourhood, home to many immigrants from the south of Italy and Abruzzo, mostly labourers and construction workers. Soon after the Armistice, and up until the Liberation, the Quadraro becomes a centre of spontaneous civilian resistance, where small daily actions, from attacks on the Nazi-Fascist vans to assaults on the bread ovens, create a situation which makes it difficult for the invaders to enter the area. Everyone participates in this “light” resistance, consisting of conversations in bars and small acts of sabotage and attacks – entire families, even Don Gioacchino Rey, the local parish priest of Santa Maria del Buon Consiglio.
Story04: The silent resistance of priests and nuns
During the Nazi occupation, Rome is home to the Pope and the Vatican state. There has been much discussion about the position taken by Pope Pius XII, on the papal throne in 1939, in relation to the German invaders. Two opposing theories explain the ‘silence’ of the Vatican at this time. One theory sees the Pope as close to the Nazis due to their role as anti-Soviets and anti-Communists in Europe; the other, however, explains the neutrality of the Vatican as a way of being able to stay in the city and provide clandestine assistance. For our purposes, it is not important which is the correct explanation. In the project we do not intend to discuss the higher echelons of the Vatican, but rather the dozens of nuns, priests and monks who secretly helped those in need during those terrible days in Rome. Convents, seminaries, confraternities and even places of cloistered communities, hid Jews, gave shelter to military deserters, resistance fighters, fugitive political dissidents and their families, and to the partisans, regardless of religion or political views. Some of these events, which led to the deaths of clerics and other members of the Church, are both well-known and even commemorated, but many others have remained in the shadows, similarly to a multitude of other minor acts of day-to-day resistance in Rome. Priests were considered so dangerous that the fascist political police sent their men to listen to their sermons in church to assess whether they constituted incitement against the Nazi-Fascists.
Everyone knows the story of Don Pietro Pappagallo, shot at the Fosse Ardeatine; that of Father Giuseppe Morosini, tortured and then shot in Via Tasso in Forte Bravetta, accused of hiding weapons for the partisans. But not everyone knows the incredible story of Don Paolo Pecoraro who, on March 12th 1944, stood up in the midst of the crowd listening to the Pope in St. Peter’s Square, with a red flag and began shouting his protest against the Nazi invaders. The Pope had him arrested and brought to the Vatican, but only to save him from the hands of the German military. We should also not forget Don Gioacchino Rey of the parish of Santa Maria del Buon Consiglio, who was violently beaten for his outspoken opposition to the Nazi round-up and deportation of the men from the Quadraro; he managed to ensure that the under-16s and over-60s were not taken. Many documents mention Don Volpino of the parish of Santa Maria della Provvidenza in via Donna Olimpia who took in and saved at least 65 Jews, as well as resistance fighters and politicians. A key role in this work of aid and rescue was played by all the parish priests and church members of the villages and the poorest neighbourhoods of Rome. These include the nursing sisters of the Ramazzini Sanatorium who even helped the men of the “Bandiera Rossa” partisan company; Don Adolfo Petriconi and his curate, Don Parisio Curzi, of the parish of SS. Redentore in Val Melaina who were arrested and sentenced to death, though ultimately saved by a last minute stay of execution; and Father Libero Raganella, parish priest of the poor district of San Lorenzo.
Many remember the incredible episode of the Nazis who entered San Paolo Abbey (which had taken in about 620 fugitives) with weapons drawn and took away several politicians, escapees of the draft and Jews, despite a further attempt on the part of the monks to help them escape.
A special role was also played by the nuns who hid many Jewish women and girls. We mention, as examples only, the Augustinians of Santi Quattro Coronati, and the sisters of San Pancrazio al Gianicolo church .
This section of the project will highlight those ‘minor’ episodes concerning the men and women of the church, Christians, Catholics, who, by acting in accordance with their beliefs, ended up tortured and/or killed. We also focus on a real and spontaneous network which allowed the refugees to escape, but also to work at organising the resistance from their hiding places in different centres of worship around Rome.Sources:
Story05: The Clandestine Front of the “Carabinieri”
On 7th October 1944, the German High Command in Rome definitively disbands the Carabinieri. The SS bursts into the barracks, deporting between 1500 and 2500 police officers (“carabinieri”) to concentration camps in Germany. In the documents of General Herbert Kappler, we read that the deportation of the Carabinieri was necessary in order to proceed with the round-up of the Jews in the Roman ghetto, because the Carabinieri were the only ones who could sabotage the operation.
The submission for the second stage of the competition will include the following material:
* For the on-line submission, photos of the model/s should be included in the form of PDF file in A4 size with a sequence of 10 pics.
Prizes, reimbursements and subsequent commissions
Ownership of materials and rights to exhibit and publish
04. Workshop agenda (8-14 SEP 2013)
Minor geographies of day-to-day resistance
by Routes Agency Rome and POLIMI Milano
Meeting room: IED room-Master, via Casilina 56, Roma
Sunday, September 8
WS participants placement in hotels as follows:
Participants (8-14 SEP 2013)
℅ B&B stay at Rome
℅ BB San Lorenzo
℅ Domus Sessoriana
All Partners members participating
Guided tour at Fosse Ardeatine, at 14 pm, only for the participants arrived in the morning
– 17.00 IED room-Master: formal welcoming
– individual presentations
– 20.00 social aperitif (details will follow)
Monday, September 9
– presentation of the WS to all the groups and assignment of two interns of the Master “Curatore Museale IED” to each group
– Introduction lecture on the Italian Resistence
– 3 groups go to survey each specific site: meeting witness and first approach to the fieldwork
– 2 groups start with desk research: browse books, documents, videos and movies
Tuesday, September 10
– 2 groups go to survey each specific site: meeting witness and first approach to the fieldwork
– 3 groups start with desk research: browse books, documents, videos and movies
– 16:00: lecture of the President of “Casa della Memoria” (House of Memory) in Rome, about the Resistence in Rome
– 17:00: question time (collective: partners and participants)
Wednesday, September 11
– all groups: individual work in the field and/or in the meeting room
– REcall partners: visit all sites
Thursday, September 12
– 10:00 face-to-face meeting with individual groups (30 min each)
– all groups: individual work in the field and/or in the meeting room
Friday, September 13
– all groups: individual work in the field and/or in the meeting room
– 16:00 closing seminar: presentation by individual groups and follow up
– closing aperitif / pic-nick
Saturday, September 14
During the recent consortium meeting celebrated in Newcastle, the different partners of the REcall project have selected the winning groups that will take part in the workshops to be celebrated in Falstad and Rome. The winners are:
Disfocused team (site: The Falstad Forest)
Members: Ilaria Rondina (architect), Pau Garcia Sanchez (archaeologist), Federica Romoli (artist)
RRR (site: The Fjord)
Members: Fabrizio Bellomo (artist), Piergiorgio Italiano (interior designer), Birgitte M. Fjørtoft (archaeologist)
Chalk circle (site: The path from the Camp area to the forest)
Members: Micol Rispoli (architect), Lùa Coderch (artist), Giovanni Murro (archaeologist)
Advisors: Daniela Iannella, Emanuela Murro
AHA (site: The Camp area)
Members: Julia Hutzler (architect), Christine Guerard (artist), Thurid Andreßen (architect)
Advisors: Dr. Eszter B. Gantner (historian)
Teceel (site: The Commandant’s house)
Members: Elisabeth Eulitz (architect), Cecylia Skwirzynska (architect), Tobias Doll (archaeologist)
Terrain Vague (site: The “Attacks” on the Ovens and the Women of Ponte dell’Industria)
Members: Julia Heslop (artist), Enrico Forestieri (architect), Sophie Anderton (archaeologist)
Blank (site: The Schoolboy Partisan: Ugo Forno)
Members: Isabel Lima (artist), Lily Garnett (archaeologist), Toby Lloyd (artist)
Pigeon the message (site: The Clandestine Front of the “Carabinieri”)
Members: Tim Wouters, Filip van Dingenen (artist), PereyraLautaro (architect)
Diogenes (site: The silent resistance of priests and nuns)
Members: Arno Geesink (architect), Julia van der Krieke (archaeologist), Beata Labuhn (philosopher)
The Trojan horse (site: The Quadraro “Republic” and Operation Whale)
Members: Juan Carlos Mejía del Valle (Architect) Henar Riviere (Art Historian), Roberto Uribe Castro (Artist)
Advisors: Horacio González Cesteros (archaeologist), Iñigo Giner Miranda (composer and musician/performer)
|8th-14th September 2013
Research by design activity aimed at envisioning projects in consistency with -the issues pointed out in the Call. The workshop activities will comprise teamwork, conferences, seminars, lectures and communications from local administration.Specific objectives: